Timeline 1768- 1770
Special thanks for this abridged chronology compiled by the late Paul Capper.
All dates are as in Cook’s Journal and are, therefore, Ship’s time.
Note regarding proper names and names of places Cook visited on this and subsequent journeys. Names have often changed since Cook’s explorations. An unbracketed name is the one given by Cook, on first use, and a modern equivalent follows in brackets, if there is one, or a native one still in use. Modern usage will usually be the form for subsequent entries.
Attends Council Meeting of the Royal Society.
Attends again and agrees a gratuity of 100 guinees.
Commissioned First Lieutenant to command HMS Bark Endeavour.
Arrives on board and takes command of Endeavour at Deptford.
Endeavour in the Downs.
Cook joins Endeavour to commence Voyage.
Sails for Plymouth.
Arrives at Plymouth. Endeavour is provisioned. Banks, Solander and party join ship.
Sails from Plymouth into the Channel and Bay of Biscay.
Off Sisargas Islands and Cape Finisterre.
Lands at Funchal (Madeira). Alexander Weir, Master’s Mate, carried overboard by buoy rope and drowned.
Off Tenerife (Cape Verde Islands).
Crosses the Equator.
Sights coastline of Brazil.
Arrives Rio de Janeiro. Ship is cleaned and repaired. Meets the Viceroy. Difficulties arise over landing. Endeavour has sailed 5,000 miles from Plymouth to Rio.
Seaman Peter Flower drowned in the harbour.
Sails from Rio de Janeiro.
Sights Tierra del Fuego.
Boat goes ashore with Banks and Solander.
Anchors in Bay of Good Success. Cook goes ashore with Banks and Solander and meets natives. Surveys Bay.
Off Cape Horn (3482 miles from Rio). Into the Pacific.
Reaches most southerly point of Voyage - 60°l0’S.
Marine William Greenslade lost overboard.
Sights land, Lagoon Island (Vahitahi). Has now sailed 5036 miles since Cape Horn. Enters the Tuamotu Archipelago.
Sights King George’s Island (Tahiti).
At anchor in Matavai Bay (Tahiti). 559 miles since land sighted.
Goes ashore at Matavai Bay and meets inhabitants.
Goes ashore, decides where to site Fort Venus. Native is shot for attempting to snatch a musket.
Alexander Buchan, artist, dies and is buried at sea.
Commences building Fort Venus.
Queen Oborea (Purea) visits Fort and Endeavour.
Observatory set up.
Quadrant set up.
Watches wrestling and entertainment provided by Tuteha.
Sends Lt. Gore, Dr. Monkhouse and Sporing to York Island (Moorea) to observe the Transit.
Observes Transit of Venus with Solander and Green.
Observes Eclipse of Moon.
Returns to Fort Venus (approx. 90 miles). Prepares for sailing.
Anchors at Owarhe (Fare), Huahine. Goes ashore with Banks, Solander and Monkhouse. Meets Ori, King of the Island and Tupia. Surveys Island.
Gives Ori pewter plaque and medals to commemorate visit.
Sails from Huahine. Arrives and anchors at Opoa Harbour. Raiatea.
Goes ashore. Takes possession of island.
Unable to sail through reef because no wind.
Anchors at Rautoanui Harbour, Raiatea.
Surveys with Banks and Solander to the north.
Surveys with Banks and Solander to the south.
Visits King Opoony (Funi).
Returns to Endeavour.
Sails southwards and leaves Society Islands.
John Reardon/Reading, Boatswain’s Mate, dies after drinking a bottle of rum given him by the Boatswain.
Sights and observes Messier’s Comet. (Seen in Europe, Aug.- May.)
Sights New Zealand (Gisborne?) - by Nicholas Young.
Sights Poverty Bay, people and canoe. 3912 miles since 9th. Aug.
Goes ashore with Banks and Solander in the yawl and pinnace. Lands; on banks of R. Turanganui. A native is shot while the pinnace is under attack.
Leaves Poverty Bay.
Off Gable-end Foreland, (Anaura Bay/Tegadoo). Chiefs come aboard.
Puts to sea.
Anchors In Cook’s Cove, Tolaga Bay.
Off (Whale Island/Motuhora). Sights and names, Mount Edgecombe, passes Flat (Plate) Island.
Anchors In Mercury (Cook) Bay.
Observes Transit of Mercury with Green. Explores and surveys the Bay and the Oyster River.
Passes Iles d’Haussez (named by d’Urville) and (Waikawau Bay), sights (Mt. Maungatawhiri).
Passes Port Charles, Great Barrier Island, Channel Island, Cape Colville and enters (Hauraki) Gulf.
Anchors at mouth of the Firth of Thames.
Explores Thames River.
Passes Cape Brett, into Bay of Islands, Piercy Island, Point Pococke, Cavalle (Cavalli) Islands.
Anchors off Motu Arohia. Lands with Banks and Solander.
Lands with Banks and Solander. (Paroa Bay?)
Sails, leaves Bay of Islands. (Note in Beaglehole - Bay of Islands first surveyed by Marion du Fresne, May to July 1772).
Sights Three Kings’ Island (discovered by Tasman, Jan.1643).
Sights Cape Maria Van Diemen.
Sights The Desart (sic) Coast (Ninety Mile Beach).
Sights Mount Egmont and Cape Egmont.
Sights Entry (Kapiti) Island. Enters Queen Charlotte Sound.
Anchors in Ship’s Cove. Goes ashore. Careens Endeavour. (Cook believed this was Tasman’s Murderers’ Bay of 1642, but it was 70 miles away - Beaglehole). He explores, surveys, charts and names features in and around the Sound.
Leaves Queen Charlotte Sound.
Sights Cape Turnagain. Has Circumnavigated North Island. Turns S.
Off Banks Island (Peninsula). Cook thought this was an island.
Passes South Cape and (Long Island).
Off Solander Island (Cook has now rounded what is now Stewart Island, which he thought was the mainland). Off South Island.
Off Tasman’s landfall (13th. Dec. 1642).
Sights Admiralty Islands (Rangitoto, Trio and Chetwode), Point Jackson and (D’Urville) Island. Here he anchors in Admiralty Bay.
Sails west across the Tasman Sea, passing Cape Farewell.
Land is sighted. He names the southernmost part. Point Hicks (Cape Everard). Over 1,200 miles from New Zealand to Australia. Sights Ram Head.
Sights Cape Howe.
Sights Mount and Cape Dromedary, Bateman Bay.
Sights Point Upright, the Pigeon House (Mt. ), Brush Island.
Sights Cape St. George.
Sights Long Nose (point), Red Point and (Jervis) Bay.
Attempts to land with Banks, Solander and Tupia. Sees people. Surf too great, returns to Endeavour. (Bulli/Tom Thumb Lagoon).
Anchors in Stingrays Harbour/Botany Bay. Lands (Kurnell). Names Point Solander (S) and Cape Banks (N), Bare Islet.
Buries Torby (Forby) Sutherland, seaman, at Point Sutherland.
Lands and explores along coast for 3 or 4 miles.
Names the place Botany Bay after many alternatives considered. Sails and sights another Bay, Port Jackson (Sydney).
Sights The Three Brothers (large hills).
Off Smoky Cape.
Off the Solitary Isles, Cape Byron.
Off Danger Point (Tweed River, N. Promontory). Sights Mt. Warning.
Sights Point Lookout, Morton (Moreton) Bay, Cape Morton (now Moreton Isle with R. Brisbane and City behind), Glass House Bay and Glass Houses (hills).
Off Double Island Point (originally Fiddle Head). Crosses Wide Bay.
Anchors at Bustard Bay. Suspends Midshipman John Magra for cutting off the clothes and parts of the ears of Richard Orton, Captain’s clerk. Goes ashore with Banks and Solander.
Leaves Bustard Bay.
Off Cape Capricorn, Capricorn Group of Islands to the East.
Off Keppel Islands, anchors in Keppel Bay.
Anchors in Broad Sound. Lands.
Lands again. Sights Quail Island, enters Thirsty Sound in ship’s boat.
Anchors in north of Broad Sound. Sails. Sights Cape Palmerston, Bay of Inlets (name now gone).
Anchors, sails. Off Cape Conway and crosses Repulse Bay.
Off Whitsunday Island in Whitsunday Passage. Off Cape Gloucester, Holburn (Holborne) Island, Edgcumbe Bay.
Sends Lt. Hicks, Banks and Solander ashore on Palm Island, sights Point Hillick (Hinchinbrook Island), Iron Head, Cape Sandwich, Family Islands, Dunk Isle. Crosses Rockingham Bay.
Anchors in Mission Bay. Goes ashore with Banks and Solander, sights Green Island. Sails, crosses Trinity Bay, passes Cape Tribulation.
Sights Hope Islands. Ship runs aground on Endeavour Reef (coral). Jettisons stores, guns and equipment to lighten ship.
Ship hauled and floated off reef, flooding fast, attempt to stop leak.
Anchors and sails.
Passes Weary Bay, anchors, sails, anchors again.
Eventually runs ship ashore for repairs.
Floats off and moors in Cook Harbour/River. Lands and prepares to repair Endeavour.
23 Sat. Hunting party sights kangaroo. During ensuing days expeditions are sent inland. Specimens are collected and many sketches made.
29 Fri. Cook and Green observe “emersion” of satellite of Jupiter. Eventually accurate longitude of Endeavour River is calculated.
14 Sat. Lt. Gore shoots a kangaroo.
17 Tue. Observes satellite of Jupiter again.
4 Sat. Warps Endeavour out of river and sails. Sights Cape Bedford.
5 Mon Passes Turtle Reef.
10 Fri. Sights Low Wooded Isle, South Direction, North Direction and Lizard Islands and Two Isles. Cook thinks Endeavour is through the Reef. Passes Cape Flattery. Still within Reef.
11Sat. Anchors and lands at Point Lookout. Sights Howick Islands.
Visits and stays overnight on Lizard Island. Looks for passage through Reef.
Leaves Island. Lands on Eagle Island.
Through (Cook) Passage. Finally clears the Reef and sails north.
Almost driven aground on Reef.
Anchors within Reef, having entered through Providential Channel. Sights Cape Weymouth and Bay.
Anchors. Sights Forbes Islands, Bolt Head (mainland), Cape Grenville, Shelburne Bay, Orfordness, Temple Bay, Sir Charles Hardy’s Isles and Cockburn’s Isles (Home Islands = Gore, Orton, Hicks, Perry, Harvey and Clerke).
Off Bushy Island. Sights Cape York (northernmost point of Continent), Newcastle Bay and York Isles.
Anchors. Lands with Banks and Solander and party on Possession Island and takes possession of the whole Eastern Coast of New Holland in the name of King George III, naming it New South Wales. Sails, and enters Endeavour Straits, passes Cape Cornwall and Prince of Wales Island and Wallice (Wallis’) Island. Sets course westward.
Anchors. Loses anchor.
Recovers anchor. Sails. Sights Cook Reef.
Off New Guinea (Habeeke Island) and (Frederick Hendrik Island).
Anchors and lands at Cook’s Bay. Sails and heads for Java.
Anchors at Savu.
Meets Governor and King. Goes ashore.
Sights Java Head. Princes Island and Krakatoa. Into Sunda Strait.
Anchors at Batavia after anchoring and sailing some 13 times during the passage from Java Head. Begins negotiations with the Dutch authorities to repair and supply Endeavour. Endeavour is emptied, careened and refitted.